|Berkowitz’s (1969) Cue Arousal Theory|
- People associated with aggressive acts (a coach, player or fans)
- Sports associated with aggression (contact sports)
- Places associated with violence (a venue linked to previous experiences of violence acts)
- Objects associated with aggression (bats, boxing gloves etc)
- It does not fully explain how some people may be aggressive without observing others if placed in a particular situation.
- It does not explain how the same people can observe an aggressive act and the majority will not produce an aggressive response and only a minimal number will mimic the action (Stafford-Brown et al, 2007).