- Levels of aggression actually tend to increase in sport not decrease as Freud suggests (Berkowitz,1972).
- No innate aggressive characteristics have ever actually been found and there has never been any support found for Catharsis.
- Aggressive sports players often don’t show the same aggressive characteristics in society away from their sport.
- Aggressive behaviour is often learnt and is linked to culture not just innate.
The Frustration-aggression Theory
The main criticisms of the theory include:
- Not all frustration leads to aggression.
- Not all aggressive behaviour is caused by frustration some behaviours are learnt.
- It doesn’t account for situational factors or individual differences.